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Improving skills and pedagogical sensitivity of teachers in Dutch primary education: A study on the effects of the behavioral intervention for teachers Multi-Method Coaching on teacher and child mental health and educational outcomes.


- candidate number14232
- NTR NumberNTR3811
- ISRCTNISRCTN wordt niet meer aangevraagd.
- Date ISRCTN created
- date ISRCTN requested
- Date Registered NTR20-jan-2013
- Secondary IDsPRO-3-11 Stichting Innovatie Alliantie
- Public TitleImproving skills and pedagogical sensitivity of teachers in Dutch primary education: A study on the effects of the behavioral intervention for teachers Multi-Method Coaching on teacher and child mental health and educational outcomes.
- Scientific TitleImproving skills and pedagogical sensitivity of teachers in Dutch primary education: A study on the effects of the behavioral intervention for teachers Multi-Method Coaching on teacher and child mental health and educational outcomes.
- ACRONYMKey2Teach
- hypothesis(1) The reactive and proactive skills and pedagogical sensitivity (competencies of teachers regarding classroom management practices and behavior management strategies) of teachers in the intervention condition will improve due to the intervention MMC, compared to the skills and pedagogical sensitivity of teachers in the control condition.

(2) Teacher-child relationships of teachers in the experimental condition will improve due to improved reactive and proactive skills and pedagogical sensitivity caused by MMC, compared to the teacher-child relationships in the control condition.

(3) The mental health problems of teachers and children in the experimental condition will be reduced due to improved skills and pedagogical sensitivity of teachers, and improved teacher-child relationships, compared to the mental health problems of teachers and children in the control condition.
- Healt Condition(s) or Problem(s) studiedChildren, Stress, Burnout , Anxiety, Depression, Teachers, Behavioral problems
- Inclusion criteriaThis study will employ a multiple-gate screening procedure to identify 144 teacher-child dyads. All children from ages 8 to 12 (grades 5, 6, 7) years attending the 62 participating schools will be included in this procedure and screened.
Step 1 inclusion: All children with (sub)clinical levels of conduct problems will be identified;
Step 2 inclusion: Teachers who report a conflictuous relationship with any of the children in their class who were identified in step 1 will be selected;
Step 3 inclusion: When more than 1 conflictuous teacher-child dyad is identified within one class, one dyad will be randomly selected;
Step 4 inclusion: Finally, schools will be included when they have at least two conflictuous teacher-child dyads. If a participating school has two or three dyads, two dyads will be randomly selected to participate. If a participating school has more than four dyads, four dyads will be randomly selected to participate in the study.
- Exclusion criteria1. Schools will be excluded when they are participating in an intensive intervention aimed at reducing conduct problems during schoolyear 2013-2014;
2. Teachers of the selected schools will be excluded when they are participating in another intensive behavioral teacher-training during schoolyear 2013-2014.
- mec approval receivedno
- multicenter trialyes
- randomisedyes
- masking/blindingNone
- controlNot applicable
- groupParallel
- Type2 or more arms, randomized
- Studytypeintervention
- planned startdate 1-jun-2013
- planned closingdate31-dec-2014
- Target number of participants5616
- InterventionsThe intervention Multi-Method Coaching (MMC) will be implemented during school year 2013-2014 at the schools assigned to the intervention condition. MMC is a manual-based school-based intervention that consists of two elements:
1. The Relationship Focused Reflection Program (RFRP);
2. Synchronous Videocoaching (SV) on teacher skills and behavioral sensitivity.
MMC will be implemented as part of the curriculum in the classes of the 72 dyad-teachers (grades 3, 4 and 5). The

RFRP comprises four individual sessions. Goal of the RFRP is to help the teacher to reflect (under the supervision of a well-trained Multi-Method Coach) on the positive and negative emotions that the teacher experiences in daily interactions with the dyad-child, and to help the teacher to reflect on the quality of his/her behavioral sensitivity (effective use of rules and routines, praise, corrections, selective ignoring, opportunities to respond and quality of feedback). The teacher will be encouraged to reflect on the associations between quality of aspects of behavioral sensitivity, the quality of the teacher-child relationship, problem behavior of the child, and wellbeing of the teacher. Attention will be paid to the improvement of the skills and behavioral sensitivity of the teacher. In session one, teacher's narratives about the relationship with the dyad-child will be elicited using in an interview between coach and teacher. In session two, the coach will help the teacher to associate the narrated representation to actual interactions with the child using videorecordings. After that, the coach presents the teacher with a unique relational profile based on the teacher's narrative with strenghts and weaknesses regarding different aspects of his/her behavioral sensitivity in interaction with the dyad-child. This profile serves as a starting point for in-depth reflection on teacher competencies regarding classroom management practices and behavior management strategies (session three and four).

Synchronous Videocoaching comprises two phases of nine sessions; 18 sessions in total. During Synchronous Videocoaching, the coach and teacher are connected wirelessly (one-way) via a Bluetooth connection. The coach observes the teacher and whispers short and clear instructions (keywords) directly to the teacher through an earpiece if the teacher engages in undesirable behavior during the lesson (watchful waiting). Keywords are immediate, short and specific suggestions which identify the type and the extent of errors, and which provide specific ways to the teacher to correct them. The advantage of using immediate feedback through (pre-structured) keywords is that it provides teachers the opportunity to change target behaviors while practicing a skill. In this way a repetition of errors, wich leads to internalising the undesirable behavior, will be avoided. With immediate feedback, the coach is able to stop the teacher from performing an incorrect technique and use corrective feedback to inform the teacher of what to do instead. In this way, teachers wil immediately experience the effects of their own behavior. The coaches film their interventions (keywords) and the effects of the key words on teacher-child interactions. The coach and teacher will discuss these video fragments after the lesson through micro-analysis of the problematic situation and the effects of the keywords on teacher-child interaction.

In this study, the specific learning goals of the participating teachers will be determined through the use of data from observations and a micro-analysis of his/her behavioral sensitivity (effective use of rules and routines, praise, corrections, selective ignoring, opportunities to respond and quality of feedback). Teachers will receive Synchronous Videocoaching on behavior patterns and interactions related to these classroom management practices and behavioral strategies. The analysis, keywords and techniques are based on the scientific knowledge base on these behavioral strategies.

In the control condition, education and care 'as usual' will take place.
- Primary outcomePrimary study parameters (teacher outcomes):
1. Reactive and proactive skills and pedagogical sensitivity (competencies of teachers regarding classroom management practices and behavior management strategies); measured by the CLASS;
2. Teacher perceptions of self-efficacy (TSES);
3. Teacher perception of levels of conflict within the relationships with all children in class (LLRV);
4. Teacher perception of the relationship with the dyad-child: levels of closeness (warmth and open communication), conflict (negativity and discordance), and dependancy of the child on the teacher (LLRV);
5. Observed quality of the relationship between the teacher and the dyad-child (CLASS).

Primary study parameters (child outcomes):
1. Child perceptions of teacher-child interactions (VIL);
2. Observed quality of the relationship between the teacher and the dyad-child (CLASS).
- Secondary outcomeSecondary study parameters (teacher outcomes):
1. Teacher-reported symptoms of stress (CARD);
2. Teacher-reported symptoms of burnout (UBOS-L);
3. Teacher reported symptoms of anxiety/depression (ASR);
4. Teacher reported job satisfaction (Job Statisfaction Scale).

Secundary study parameters (child outcomes):
1. Child-reported prosocial problems (Conduct problems, Hyperactivity, Emotional problems, Problems with peers and Social problems) (SDQ);
2. Teacher-reported Conduct problems, Hyperactivity, and Emotional problems (SDQ);
3. Child-reported social wellbeing in relation to teacher and classmates (SPF);
4. Teacher-reported learning conditions (LRV);
5. Academic progress (CITO) and teacher expectancies about academic progress;
6. Peer nominated aggression and sociometric status (Peer Nominations).
- Timepoints1. Multiple-gate screening procedure: September 2013;
2. Pretreatment assessment: Oktober 2013;
3. Effectmeasure: January 2014;
4. Post-treatment assessment: June 2014;
5. Follow-up asssessment: November 2014.
- Trial web siteN/A
- statusplanned
- CONTACT FOR PUBLIC QUERIESMevr. Dr. P. Vuijk
- CONTACT for SCIENTIFIC QUERIESMevr. Dr. P. Vuijk
- Sponsor/Initiator Hogeschool INHolland
- Funding
(Source(s) of Monetary or Material Support)
Stichting Innovatie Alliantie (SIA)
- PublicationsN/A
- Brief summaryTen percent of the Dutch children cope with conduct problems. These children are at elevated risk for future problems such as school drop-out, social isolation, criminal behavior, unemployment, depression and addiction.

Relationships with teachers can be considered as the driving force behind a healty development of children. Teacher-child relationships that can be characterized by warmth, an open communication and few conflicts and dependency of the child on the teacher have a positive influence on the social-emotional and cognitive development of children. However, the relationships between teachers and children with conduct problems are often problematic. They are typically characterized by conflict and elicit feelings of anger and helplessness in teachers. Research indicates that teachers are less sensititive and more controlling towards children with conduct problems. These conflictuous relationships deteriorate child problem behavior, hamper the child's wellbeing, hamper a positive and safe class climate, and have a negative impact on the academic progress and wellbeing of classmates. Moreover, conflictuous relationships with children with conduct problems appear to be the most important cause of teacher-reported stress- and burnoutsymptoms.

Teachers emphasize the need for effective ways to improve the relationships with children with conduct problems. The main objective of the Key2Teach-study is to develop the intervention Multi-Method Coaching, to test the effects of this intervention, and to study the experiences of teachers and coaches. Moreover, this study aims to supervise adaption and implementation of Multi-Method Coaching and corresponding training in manual guidance for coaches in primary education and teacher training.

The main objective of this study is to test the effects of a classroom-based, manual-guided intervention Multi-Method Coaching on the behavioral sensitivity of Dutch primary education teachers in improving the relationships with children with (sub)clinical levels of conduct problems. Additionally, the effects of improved teacher-child relationship on several aspects of teacher and child mental health aspects will be studied. The second objective of this study is to investigate the association between school- and program factors and child- and teacher outcomes of Multi-Method Coaching.

Approximately 62 mainstream elementary schools will be included in this study. After a multiple-gate screening procedure, conducted at these 62 schools, 160 teacher-child dyades, characterized by (1) (sub)clinical levels of teacher-reported conduct problems of the child, and (2) a teacher-reported conflictuous teacher-child relationship, will be included in the study. 72 dyades will be assigned to the intervention condition, and 72 dyades to the control condition. Classmates (3600) of the 144 dyad-children will participate in this study. In total: 5616 respondents will participate in this study.
- Main changes (audit trail)
- RECORD20-jan-2013 - 4-feb-2013


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