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Effect of switching between actively sniffed food odours on appetite and food choice.


- candidate number14306
- NTR NumberNTR3830
- ISRCTNISRCTN wordt niet meer aangevraagd.
- Date ISRCTN created
- date ISRCTN requested
- Date Registered NTR1-feb-2013
- Secondary IDsN/A 
- Public TitleEffect of switching between actively sniffed food odours on appetite and food choice.
- Scientific TitleInvestigate the effects of active sniffing and switching between food odours on appetite, sensory-specific appetite and food choice.
- ACRONYMSniff
- hypothesis1. Active sniffing decreases appetite;
2. Food choice is mainly influenced by the food odour that was perceived first.
- Healt Condition(s) or Problem(s) studiedOverconsumption
- Inclusion criteria1. Female;
2. Between 18 to 45 years old;
3. BMI between 18.5 and 25 kg/m2;
4. Healthy as judged by the participant;
5. Fluent in Dutch.
- Exclusion criteria1. Smoking;
2. Following a diet during last 2 months;
3. Weight gain or loss of more than 5kg during last year;
4. Pregnancy or breast feeding during last half year;
5. Vegetarian;
6. Diabetes;
7. Hormonal diseases;
8. Disease on the thyroid gland;
9. Stomach or bowel disease;
10. Participating in other research that has restrictions on consumption;
11. Drug use;
12. Medication during last 3 months (Lactulose, Norit, ‘ Maagzuurremmers’ );
13. Lack of appetite for any (unknown) reason;
14. Difficulties swallowing or eating;
15. Hyper sensitivity or allergy to one of the food items that are smelled during the lunch in the study (bananas, meat).
- mec approval receivedno
- multicenter trialno
- randomisedyes
- masking/blindingNone
- controlNot applicable
- groupCrossover
- Type2 or more arms, randomized
- Studytypeintervention
- planned startdate 4-mrt-2013
- planned closingdate22-mrt-2013
- Target number of participants30
- InterventionsOdour, either banana or meat.

Participants are expected in the lab for 4 times, around lunch time. During every visit, they will actively smell the content of two cups for 5 minutes. The content of the cups are in the different conditions as follows: banana/meat, meat/banana, water/meat, water banana. Before, and during the active smelling, the participants will fill out an appetite questionnaire, in which hunger, appetite and appetite for different kind of foods will be assessed. At the end a food choice questionnaire will be given.
- Primary outcome1. Appetite (rated on VAS: ‘Hoeveel zin heb je om op dit moment te eten?’);
2. Sensory-specific-appetite (rated on VAS: ‘Hoeveel zin heb je om op dit moment bananen te eten?’);
3. Appetite for something savoury and appetite for something sweet;
4. Food choice frequency: frequence of choice for a certain product.
- Secondary outcomeN/A
- TimepointsAll individuals are expected to come four times to the testlocation.
- Trial web siteN/A
- statusplanned
- CONTACT FOR PUBLIC QUERIES M.G. Ramaekers
- CONTACT for SCIENTIFIC QUERIES M.G. Ramaekers
- Sponsor/Initiator Wageningen University (WUR)
- Funding
(Source(s) of Monetary or Material Support)
Stichting Technologische Wetenschappen (STW)
- PublicationsN/A
- Brief summaryIn view of the obesity epidemic, it is important to understand which factors determine the appetizing and/or satiating responses to food cues. It is well known that exposure to food cues, e.g. the sight or odour of freshly baked bread or pizza, can enhance appetite feelings. Especially, the appetite for smelled foods increases, compared to foods that were not smelled (sensory-specific appetite). On the other hand, some studies showed that the appetite for the smelled foods decreased after sniffing the food actively (sensory-specific satiety).
In this study, we want to investigate if active/passive smelling affects appetite and food choice. Furthermore, we would like to find out if food choice is determined most by the first exposure or the last, by switching between odours.
The primary objective is to investigate the effects of active sniffing and switching between food odours on appetite, sensory-specific appetite and food choice odours on appetite, appetite for the smelled food and salivation over time.
Who can participate? Healthy women, 18-45 yr old, BMI 18.5 – 25 kg / m2.
What does the study involve? Participants are expected in the lab for 4 times, around lunch time. During every visit, they will actively smell the content of two cups for 5 minutes. The content of the cups are in the different conditions as follows: banana/meat, meat/banana, water/meat, water banana. Before, and during the active smelling, the participants will fill out an appetite questionnaire, in which hunger, appetite and appetite for different kind of foods will be assessed. At the end a food choice questionnaire will be given.
- Main changes (audit trail)
- RECORD1-feb-2013 - 11-feb-2013


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